07. Camera Lenses and Focal Length

Lenses play an important part in photography — some may even argue that they’re equally, if not more important, than the choice of camera.

As we touched on in chapter one of this course, different lenses produce different results depending on the configurations within the lens barrel. These configurations determine the magnification and angle of view and allow us to create different effects, depending on the lens.

How camera lenses work

Lenses focus the light onto the recording medium, which allows an image to be recorded. As you’ll see from the illustration of a DSLR camera below, light enters the lens and passes through the front element (2) before reaching several lens elements (3, 5 & 6). These elements serve to direct the light to a single focal point so that it can accurately be recorded by the sensor (9) once the mirror (7) flips up (which is triggered by pressing the shutter button). Mirrorless cameras work the same way, but do not have the mirror or prism.

How camera lenses work infographic

Lens quality is determined by factors such as its maximum light gathering ability (f-stop number written on the lens), its resolving power (how sharp the images produced are), the colors it can focus (quality of the glass), the contrast it achieves (also the quality of the glass) and the type of material the lens is made from - all part of lens design.

What the numbers on a lens mean

Now that you understand the basics of how a lens works, you might be wondering what all the numbers (and letters) on a lens mean. Typically, lenses are written in a format like this: Canon EF 24-70mm f/2.8L II USM Lens or Nikon AF-S 50mm f/1.8G. Each of these numbers and letters tell you essential information such as focal length, maximum aperture, lens version and focusing motor. Other features specified can include stabilisation, filter diameter and focusing distances.

Image of lens annotations

When looking to buy a lens, it’s important to consider each of these points as these will, in part, tell you about the characteristics and capabilities of the lens.

Types of camera lenses

When it comes to lenses, there’s no shortage of options. Quite simply though, lenses can be categorised into two main groups — prime or zoom lenses, both of which come in different focal lengths.

Prime vs zoom lenses

Prime (or fixed) lenses feature a fixed focal length. Available in a range of focal lengths, prime lenses are known for delivering high quality images. They also generally offer much wider apertures compared to zoom lenses.

Zoom lenses, on the other hand, provide a variety of focal lengths in one lens. This makes them very versatile and also reduces the need for multiple lenses.

Focal length

The focal length is one of the defining characteristics of a lens as this determines the angle of view as well as magnification. How focal length is determined requires an understanding of the physics of light and concave or convex lenses, but very simply, when light enters a lens, glass elements within the lens serve to converge the light to a single point, known as ‘focus’. The distance between this point and the centre of the lens is the focal length.

lens focal length and field of view

The focal length is usually indicated both on the side of the lens barrel and sometimes on the front of the lens, along with the lens diameter. Ranging anywhere from 8mm to 2000mm, there is a wide variety of focal lengths for photographers to choose from, each of which are better suited to different genres of photography. Lenses with shorter focal lengths provide a much wider angle of view and are therefore better suited to landscapes than product photography as well as less magnification. The opposite is also true for longer focal lengths, which may be better suited to sport or wildlife photography than architectural photography. Lenses with shorter focal lengths also provide less magnification than those with larger focal lengths.

Camera lenses

In addition to influencing the angle of view and magnification, focal length can also impact camera shake. Longer focal lengths are more susceptible to camera shake due to greater magnification — the tiniest movements become magnified and can result in blurred photos. Generally, I recommend shooting with a shutter speed equal to or greater than the focal length as this can help prevent this from happening.


Although not specifically a type of lens, aperture is another important feature of lenses.

As you’ll already know from the previous chapters, aperture refers to the opening in the lens that controls how much light reaches the sensor. This is indicated in the format 1:2.8, for example, with the second set of numbers indicating the maximum aperture. Some lenses will feature two maximum apertures (shown as 1:4-5.6). What this means is that as you zoom, the aperture capability changes. So at the shortest focal length, you may be able to shoot at f4, but once you zoom to the longest focal length the widest aperture you’ll be able to shoot at will be f5.6. Generally lenses with wider apertures are favourable due to their increased light capturing capabilities.

There is also a category of lenses that feature a fixed aperture. Catadioptric, or mirror lenses, which used to be fairly common, usually feature a longer focal length, such as 500mm at a fixed aperture of f6.3. Most telescopes are catadioptric.

aperture blades
An example of aperture blades that are partially closed to approximately f8. © Karl Taylor

Pinhole cameras

Throughout this course, we’ve referred to six essentials of photography. However, at this point, it is important to mention that this could in fact be five. This is because images can be recorded without a lens. These cameras are known as pinhole cameras (or camera obscuras). However, recording an image without a lens is far more complex and doesn’t afford the photographer the same creative freedom as when using lenses. Essentially, without a lens, you're shooting at a very small fixed aperture. Lenses, due to the variations in magnification, allow us to shoot many different objects, which simply wouldn’t be possible with a camera obscura. For more information about this, refer to the complimentary e-book.

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  1. Hi Karl, I would like some advice from you. I already have a prime 100mm macro lens which is a wonderful lens. I wanted to purchase a new one to take photos of larger products, do shooting for restaurants (not just details or food), and start portrait photography (business, beauty, families…) so I bought a 24-70 2.8 lens because I heard it’s very versatile, but I’m not sure I made the right choice… Do you think I should return it and buy a prime lens? If so, which one? Thank you!

    1. Hi, the 24-70 is not suited to portraits, it is suited to more general scenes. For interior wide angle shots and landscapes I’d be looking at a 16-35 and for dedicated portraits then your 100mm macro is good but also a fixed 85mm 1.4 would be great. Another versatile lens for portrait and distant work is the 70-200 f2.8. I’ve never really liked the 24-70 as for me it’s neither wide enough or close enough if you know what I mean. My lenses for a 35mm FF camera are, 90mm macro, 85mm (portrait) 16-35 wideangle/landscapes/interiors, 70-200 f2.8 portraits/distant subjects, 2x convertor for the 70-200.

  2. Photominister

    Hello Mr Taylor. Please for me using APS-C Canon SL2 Camera. What lenses would you recommend. Though I am planning to buy sigma 18-35 f1.8 but which is best for photography on APS-C type camera

    1. Hi, I think you should consider a fixed focal length lens around 70 or 80mm in f1.4 so that you have a lens that is good for portraits. The 18-35 will be a medium wideangle which is better for street and landscapes.

  3. John

    Hi Karl. For product & food photography you mention that you use 100mm focal lenth often. But I have a APS-Crop Sensor Canon body. That said, for closer product shots, should I look at a 60mm macro lens to bring me closer to the 100mm after the math for the crop sensor?
    Many Thanks!

  4. Mahmoud Wafa

    Hello Karl! I’m excited to join this program a ton. I do have a question here, I’ve heard lots of different opinions for the best lenses for product photography, and I’m wondering what do you think is best for that. I’ve recently ordered the 85mm/ f/2.8 G OSS macro lens for my Sony camera.

    1. Hi Mahmoud, thanks for joining us. If you check our Introduction to Product Photography section you will find good advice there.

  5. My question is: a 28mm lens is not going to give your picture/video the same look as a, say 135mm lens even if you walk up to the subject because the wider lens(es) have a more curved shape and perspective than the more telephoto lenses – is my understanding correct?

    1. Hi, yes perspective changes dramatically depending on focal length and therefore the choice of lens is important to the style of story telling.

      1. In this case then I suppose a 35mm lens does NOT give the same look on a cropped sensor than a 50mm lens on a full frame, even though in theory they both have equivalent focal length (the 35mm on cropped sensor will give a more distorted picture than the 50mm on full sensor?)

        1. Hi, yes that’s exactly correct because one would be a cropped picture and the other would not and then if you moved to make the subject the same size then perspective has changed.

  6. Hello Mr Taylor i am getting ready to purchase a dedicated landscape lens. i am currently looking at the Canon 24-70 and a 24-105, (both L lens) from what I have seen the 24-70 seems to be the standard, so what is the main difference besides aperture and focal lengths and what would you recommend ? thank you

    1. Hi, if you are looking at a dedicated landscape lens then why 24-70 or 24-105? I would be looking at 16-35 for Landscape. Please watch the rest of this course.

  7. Hi Karl,

    I’m new to photography and have already learned so much from you, so thank you! I have just purchased a Canon R5 with a 100mm RF 2.8 Macro IS USM lens. My passion is product photography.

    I want to photograph some general scenes (like some books on old wood with a bottle of whisky etc.) and one or two portraits, so I was thinking more generally.

    I asked my local photographic store, and they don’t recommend an 85mm lens and should go with a 50mm. They say I’m already in that area with a 100mm, so why have two lenses with a similar focal distance/range?

    I note you use 50mm and 85mm on product photography. My problem is with the 100mm macro lens, I need to be quite far away from the subject or scene, and sometimes that’s impossible for me. I’m looking and buying a Canon RF 85mm F1.2L USM DS lens. What are your thoughts on this, please?

    Many thanks


    1. Hi Nick, good choice on camera and lens, you will see Anna and I using the 100 2.8 on lots of food shots. The 85mm isn’t really good for product work as it’s designed as a portrait lens but it is a better for portrait than the 100mm. For product work your 100mm is perfect for smaller products but yes you might want to consider the 50mm for larger sets but check what its closest focusing distance is. The 50 will also be a good choice for full length fashion, especially on location.

      1. Hi Karl, thank you for your reply, especially on a Saturday evening. It’s greatly appreciated! You’ve been a great help and enabled me to make a much more informed choice. Many thanks, take care, Nick.

  8. dmzbennett@icloud.com

    Hello Karl. I was just watching the video about lenses and I have a question on the 50 mm. I have the 50 but not the prime one. Will it give me the same results as the prime? What’s the difference between the two?

    1. Hi, no it won’t give the same ‘look’ as the prime. It will give the same field of view but the appearance of the image may look different because of the characteristics of the glass and elements that make the lens as well as the aperture blades and the maximum aperture size.

  9. Dear Mr. Taylor,

    I am relatively new to photography and just discovred your educational program, which is amazing! I finally understand the relation between aperture, shutter speed and the balance to get the correct exposure. I cannot believe how easy and logical it is :))) But this only if you have someone who knows how to explain it. I enroled in the hope that I’ll be able to take good photos of the jewelry I make. I am not looking to become a professional photographer, but would really love to take some good photos of my products. I have an old Nikon DSLR D3000 with a 18-55 mm lens, which is obviously not suited for this kind of job. What lenses would you recommend? Being on a tight budget I was wondering if a 50mm prime do the job? And also if extension tubes would help in any way.

    Thank you in advance!

  10. Hi Karl,

    What are good lenses for group or family photography? Also, lenses that are good for group portraits as well?

    Thank you

    1. Hi Candace, this depends on a couple of things, the first is how much room do you have to move back. If it’s outdoors or in a big studio then I’d still go with around 80-100mm or 50mm at the widest – that’s based on full frame 35mm cameras.

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